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房地产调控成果来之不易

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 长租公寓借助资本“快跑” 增值服务或成利润突破口 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

4月全国建材家居卖场销售近千亿

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

A powerful earthquake struck off Japan's southern coast on May 30, prompting fears in China of a catastrophe similar to the tsunami and Fukushima nuclear power plant meltdown that followed the 2011 Japanese quake. In the end, no fatalities or major damage were reported.
But, when the skeletal remains were analyzed, the researchers found that the tombs had been reused multiple times. Some of the tombs contain more than 10 occupants, and the"repeated multiple burials warrant further study," the researcherswrote.
单词benefit 联想记忆:
Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri
a不+dama征服+ant→不可征服的→坚定的,坚固的
Australian and Spanish schools are doing well, however. Each country’s three representatives have risen up the ranking. Sydney’s Macquarie Graduate School of Management is Australia’s top placed institution at 49 and Spain’s IE Business School moved up four places to eighth, the first time since 2012 that the Madrid school is back in the top 10.
In a sign that civil service jobs may be losing their appeal, a report issued by recruitment website Zhaopin in late March said more than 10,000 public sector employees, including civil servants and staff members at public institutions, had submitted their resumes to potential employers through the site in just two months. The number was 34 percent higher during the same period last year, the report said.

Similar trends have been seen at other Cup matches, though no polls were carried out previously.
At tech start-up conferences, such as Slush in Helsinki in December, everyone was talking about experiences. The coming year is likely to see a wider adoption of virtual reality, which places the user in a digitally enhanced environment, and augmented reality, which overlays digital information on to the real world, creating new digital businesses.
曼谷在2014-15年排行下降主要是由于近年来的政治不稳定。
['hedwei]
Burgeoning crude supply is liable to drive prices lower in 2014 after a run of years when emerging markets supported demand, as shifting dynamics continue to change the oil landscape.

Footnotes

  • 离京返乡公积金如何转移
  • in进入,stitute站,建立-站进去;进入建立的状态-创立

但是亚利桑那州的经济前景现在已经大为好转,随着住房市场的稳定,失业率在5月份降至7.8%,创下经济衰退后的新低。为了评选今年的美国最适宜经商的州,我们评估了35项指标以判断哪些州的经商条件最佳,哪些最差,这些指标中就包括就业预期。根据穆迪分析公司(Moody’s Analytics)的统计,在今后五年中,亚利桑那州的就业增长速度预计将达到每年3%。到2017年,亚利桑那州增长的就业岗位预计每年将把家庭收入提高3.6%,在全美各州中位居第二,仅次于伊利诺伊州。亚利桑那州的就业增长和经济增长保持同步,穆迪预计该州的经济增长速度为每年4.6%,达到美国的最佳水平。
Index: 100.0
Phil Baty, editor of THE rankings, said: "China has introduced powerful policy drives, backed with serious funding, to produce world-class universities. In 2015, the country announced its excellence initiative, which aims to establish six of its universities in the leading group of global institutions by 2020."
'With women, he has this sort of patronising carnal attitude with them which is absolutely accurate to the Bond of the books. But then by creating very strong women he is given quite a run for his money and his attitudes are challenged.
press挤压+ure→压力
While the political system will be fixated on preserving stability as new leaders take the helm, reduced economic flexibility could thwart Beijing's intentions to do so.

智能家居崛起:行业急需建立统一标准

References

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